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Cd9 and cd63 are used as biomarkers in evs but they can change from cell line to cell line

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The amount of CD9 and CD63 (tetraspanin) could change from cell line to cell line[@hartjes2020EVQuant; high-throughput quantification and characterization of extracellular vesicle (sub)populations]. TR-FIA is a bulk measurement that does not allow to distinguish sub-populations, therefore single-particle measurements are an advantage. This is what quantifying the concentration of EVs in urine or plasma through confocal microscopy allows at a single-particle level.

More epitopes on the surface of an EV will increase the TR-FIA signal, but more epitopes at a single-particle level will not result in higher EV count. [@hartjes2020EVQuant; high-throughput quantification and characterization of extracellular vesicle (sub)populations]

Importantly, although CD9 and CD63 are often used as general EV markers, they are only detected on a fraction of EV's.

Thorough analysis of the relative abundance of CD9, CD63, and CD81 in different populations of EV's show the very high variation[@kugeratski2021Quantitative proteomics identifies the core proteome of exosomes with syntenin-1 as the highest abundant protein and a putative universal biomarker]

Relative abundance of CD9, CD63, and CD81 in different populations of EVs

It is therefore postulated that Syntenin-1 is the most abundant protein in EVs.

Tags: #Extracellular-Vesicle #biomarkers #fluorescence


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