Calibration services for open-hardware tools
A possible open hardware business model is to offer calibration services[@pearce2017Emerging Business Models for Open Source Hardware]. For example, even if the design of a tool is open, there can still be value in certifying its accuracy. Non-open processes, trademarks, etc. all build into this direction. Even if the device can be cloned, one still keeps the key of the certification. This is an intermediate approach to artificially generated scarcity.
This practice is not exclusive of open hardware, though. See: How Phillips protected IP by not outsourcing key manufacturing components. The best part of this approach is that having a calibrated device normally is required in contexts that can afford the premium, while leaving the original openness of the project intact.
These are the other notes that link to this one.